Astro Coffee

Suggested papers for
Tue, Jan 17, 2017, Thu, Jan 19, 2017, and Fri, Jan 20, 2017 at 11:00 AM

18 Jan 2017

Star formation in AGNs at the hundred parsec scale using MIR high resolution images

It has been well established in the past decades that the central black hole masses of galaxies correlate with dynamical properties of their harbouring bulges. This notion begs the question of whether there are causal connections between the AGN and its immediate vicinity in the host galaxy. In this paper we analyse the presence of circumnuclear star formation in a sample of 15 AGN using mid-infrared observations. The data consist of a set of 11.3{\mm} PAH emission and reference continuum image...

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16 Jan 2017

Large stationary gravity wave in the atmosphere of Venus

Tetsuya Fukuhara, Masahiko Futaguchi, George L. Hashimoto, Takeshi Horinouchi, + 14 more

The upper atmosphere of Venus rotates much faster than the planet itself. An anomalous stationary structure observed by the Akatsuki mission at the cloud tops of Venus could be an atmospheric gravity wave induced by mountain topography below.

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13 Jan 2017

Dynamics and Morphology of the Milky Way Spiral Arms from the Metallicity Distribution and Radial Mixing

Albeit radial migration must be a ubiquitous process in disk galaxies, its significance in the evolution of stellar discs is not always reflected through global simple trends (e.g. a single abundance curve). However, there are other key observables, such as the metallicity distribution function (MDF), that may shed some light in this matter. We argue that the shape of the MDF not only tells us whether the stellar disc experienced radial migration, but it also contains important clues on the str...

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13 Jan 2017

The distribution of stars around the Milky Way's black hole III: Comparison with simulations

The distribution of stars around a massive black hole (MBH) has been addressed in stellar dynamics for the last four decades by a number of authors. Due to its proximity, the centre of the Milky Way is the only observational test case where the stellar distribution can be accurately tested. Past observational work indicated that the brightest giants in the Galactic Centre (GC) may show a density deficit around the central black hole, not a cusp-like distribution, while we theoretically expect t...

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13 Jan 2017

The distribution of stars around the Milky Way's central black hole II: Diffuse light from sub-giants and dwarfs

This is the second of three papers that search for the predicted stellar cusp around the Milky Way's central black hole, Sagittarius A*, with new data and methods.We use adaptive optics assisted high angular resolution images obtained with the NACO instrument at the ESO VLT. Through optimised PSF fitting we remove the light from all detected stars above a given magnitude limit. Subsequently we analyse the remaining, diffuse light density. The azimuthally averaged surface light density profile w...

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13 Jan 2017

The distribution of old stars around the Milky Way's central black hole I: Star counts

(abridged) In this paper we revisit the problem of inferring the innermost structure of the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster via star counts, to clarify whether it displays a core or a cusp around the central black hole. Through image stacking and improved PSF fitting we push the completeness limit about one magnitude deeper than in previous, comparable work. Contrary to previous work, we analyse the stellar density in well-defined magnitude ranges in order to be able to constrain stellar masse...

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16 Jan 2017

Transit probability of precessing circumstellar planets in binaries and exomoons

Over two decades of exoplanetology have yielded thousands of discoveries, yet some types of systems are yet to be observed. Circumstellar planets around one star in a binary have been found, but not for tight binaries (< 5 AU). Additionally, extra-solar moons are yet to be found. This paper motivates finding both types of three-body system by calculating analytic and numerical probabilities for all transit configurations, accounting for any mutual inclination and orbital precession. The prec...

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12 Jan 2017

On the dynamical evolution of the Orion Trapezium

We discuss recent observational data on the transverse and radial velocities, as well as on the masses of the main components of the Orion Trapezium. Based on the most reliable values of these quantities we study the dynamical evolution of ensembles of multiple systems mimicking the Orion Trapezium. To this end we conduct numerical $N-$body integrations using the observed masses, planar positions and velocities, radial velocities, and random line-of-sight ($z$) positions for all components. We ...

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11 Jan 2017

Discovery of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha system

We report the discovery and analysis of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) system currently known, based on observations made with the Keck HIRES spectrograph. The metal paucity of this system has only permitted the determination of three element abundances: [C/H] = -3.43 +/- 0.06, [O/H] = -3.05 +/- 0.05, and [Si/H] = -3.21 +/- 0.05, as well as an upper limit on the abundance of iron: [Fe/H] < -2.81. This DLA is among the most carbon-poor environment currently known with detectable...

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10 Jan 2017

Extragalactic Peaked-Spectrum Radio Sources at Low Frequencies

We present a sample of 1,483 sources that display spectral peaks between 72 MHz and 1.4 GHz, selected from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey. The GLEAM survey is the widest fractional bandwidth all-sky survey to date, ideal for identifying peaked-spectrum sources at low radio frequencies. Our peaked-spectrum sources are the low frequency analogues of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact-steep spectrum (CSS) sources, which have been hypothesiz...

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15 Jan 2017

A "Cosmic Comb" Model of Fast Radio Bursts

Recent observations of fast radio bursts (FRBs) indicate a perplexing, inconsistent picture. We propose a unified scenario to interpret diverse FRBs observed. A regular pulsar, otherwise unnoticeable at a cosmological distance, may produce a bright FRB if its magnetosphere is suddenly "combed" by a nearby, strong plasma stream towards the direction of Earth. The stream could be an AGN flare, a GRB or supernova blastwave, a tidal disruption event, or even a stellar flare. Since it is the energy ...

9 Jan 2017

Log-normal star formation histories in simulated and observed galaxies

Gladders et al. have recently suggested that the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies are characterized by a log-normal function in time, implying a slow decline rather than rapid quenching. We test their conjecture on theoretical SFHs from the cosmological simulation Illustris and on observationally inferred SFHs. While the log-normal form necessarily ignores short-lived features such as starbursts, it fits the overall shape of the majority of SFHs very well. In particular, 8...

16 Dec 2016

Stagnant Shells in the Vicinity of the Dusty Wolf-Rayet-OB Binary WR 112

We present high spatial resolution mid-infrared images of the nebula around the late-type carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet (WC)-OB binary system WR~112 taken by the recently upgraded VLT spectrometer and imager for the mid-infrared (VISIR) with the PAH1, NeII\_2, and Q3 filters. The observations reveal a morphology resembling a series of arc-like filaments and broken shells. Dust temperatures and masses are derived for each of the identified filamentary structures, which exhibit temperatures ranging from...

21 Dec 2016

Planck intermediate results. LII. Planet flux densities

Measurements of flux density are described for five planets, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, across the six Planck High Frequency Instrument frequency bands (100-857 GHz) and these are then compared with models and existing data. In our analysis, we have also included estimates of the brightness of Jupiter and Saturn at the three frequencies of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (30, 44, and 70 GHz). The results provide constraints on the intrinsic brightness and the brightness tim...

13 Jan 2017

Two Small Transiting Planets and a Third Body Orbiting HD 106315

The masses, atmospheric makeups, spin-orbit alignments, and system architectures of extrasolar planets can be best studied when the planets orbit bright stars. We report the discovery of three bodies orbiting HD 106315, a bright (V = 8.97 mag) F5 dwarf targeted by our K2 survey for transiting exoplanets. Two small, transiting planets have radii of 2.23 (+0.30/-0.25) R_Earth and 3.95 (+0.42/-0.39) R_Earth and orbital periods of 9.55 d and 21.06 d, respectively. A radial velocity (RV) trend of 3....

Updated 2017/01/20 11:31:40

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